Aligning with He Arotahi Tatauranga

It evolved from work begun in 1995 by the Māori Statistics Forum to develop a Māori statistical framework focused on the collective aspirations of Māori wellbeing and development. A draft framework was developed in 2002. Stats NZ used this framework to underpin products such as Te Kupenga, Te Waharoa, and Te Ao Mārama. The framework was extensively reviewed and revised in 2014 and was renamed He Arotahi Tatauranga.

He Arotahi Tatauranga means a focus on pathways to the future through statistics. This name was chosen to describe the many entry points and pathways within the tool.

He Arotahi Tatauranga provides a useful way to view indicators with a common theme while acknowledging the holistic and interconnected nature of wellbeing that aligns with a Māori way of looking at the world.

We have used the six dimensions of He Arotahi Tatauranga as a pathway to the indicators. These dimensions are:

  • Te ao Māori
  • Human resource potential
  • Empowerment and enablement
  • Economic self-determination
  • Social capability
  • Environmental sustainability.

Some indicators link to more than one He Arotahi Tatauranga dimension.

Note: Ngā Tūtohu Aotearoa – Indicators Aotearoa New Zealand has not yet incorporated a comprehensive te ao Māori view of wellbeing. The decision has been made to leave the te ao Māori dimension empty until work around developing this is complete.

For more information, see He Arotahi Tatauranga .


HAT Dimensions


Human resource potential: 

  • Amenable mortality
  • Core competencies (non-cognitive skills)
  • Early childhood education (ECE) participation
  • Educational attainment
  • Harm against children
  • Health expectancy
  • Illness attributable to air quality
  • Inequality of educational outcomes
  • Injury prevalence
  • Intergenerational transfer of knowledge
  • Language development and retention
  • Literacy, numeracy, and science skills of 15-year-olds
  • Mental health status (psychological distress)
  • Migration by skill type
  • Not in employment, education, or training (NEET)
  • Self-reported health status
  • Spiritual health
  • Suicide
  • Te reo Māori speakers
  • Workplace accidents

Empowerment and enablement: 

  • Active stewardship of land
  • Corruption
  • Democratic participation
  • Health equity
  • Income inequality
  • Inequality of educational outcomes
  • Institutional trust: parliament
  • Institutional trust: police
  • Justice equity
  • Locus of control
  • Work/life balance

Economic self-determination: 

  • Child poverty: low income
  • Child poverty: material hardship
  • Efficiency of land use
  • Employment rate
  • Energy consumption
  • Energy intensity
  • Foreign direct investment
  • Homelessness
  • Hourly earnings
  • Housing affordability
  • Housing quality
  • Income
  • Income adequacy
  • Infrastructure
  • International investment position
  • Job satisfaction
  • Job strain
  • Low income
  • Material wellbeing
  • Modified land
  • Net fixed assets
  • Net international investment position
  • Net worth
  • Official development assistance
  • Overcrowding
  • Productivity
  • Remittances to other countries
  • Resilience of infrastructure
  • Underutilisation
  • Unemployment
  • Value of unpaid work

Social capability: 

  • Ability to be yourself
  • Access to natural spaces
  • Commuting time to work
  • Contact with family and friends
  • Cultural ecosystem services
  • Domestic violence
  • Engagement in cultural activities
  • Experience of discrimination
  • Experienced wellbeing
  • Generalised trust
  • Harm against children
  • Heritage assets
  • Hope for the future
  • Institutional trust: parliament
  • Institutional trust: police
  • Leisure and personal time
  • Life satisfaction
  • Locus of control
  • Loneliness
  • Perceptions of safety/feelings of safety
  • Satisfaction with leisure time
  • Sense of belonging
  • Sense of purpose
  • Social support
  • Te Reo Māori speakers
  • Value of unpaid work
  • Victimisation
  • Volunteering
  • Family/Whānau wellbeing

Environmental sustainability: 

  • Access to safe water for recreation and food gathering
  • Biodiversity/native species
  • Consumption of net greenhouse gas emissions
  • Costs of extreme weather events
  • Drinking-water quality
  • Ecological integrity
  • Efficiency of land use
  • Export of waste (net and gross)
  • Fish stocks
  • Global CO₂ concentrations
  • Gross greenhouse gas emissions
  • Land assets
  • Levels of pollutants
  • Material intensity, including recycling, landfill inflows, second-hand economy
  • Mineral resources
  • Net greenhouse gas emissions
  • Migration by skill type
  • Ocean acidification
  • Productive land
  • Provisioning ecosystem services
  • Quality of water resources
  • Regulating ecosystem services
  • Renewable energy
  • Resilience of infrastructure
  • Soil health
  • Stock of freshwater resources
  • Waste flows in waterways and coastal marine environments
  • Waste generation
  • Water stress